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Chronological development of the writings for the blind, timetable


(with a focus on Germany)

timetable 1600 to 2000


Chronological development of the writings for the blind   Drucker



17th Century     (1601 - 1700)
18th Century     (1701 - 1800)
19th Century     (1801 - 1900)
20th Century     (1901 - 2000)
  • 1904 Resolution of the final version of a German shorthand system in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt)
  • 1907 The Blind Teachers Congress in Hamburg approved the first "math and chemistry writing for the blind"
  • 1910 Development of the first Braille Strip Chart Recorder by Oskar Picht in Berlin
  • 1916 Decision in the "War of the Dots" for the uniform English Braille also in America
  • same year Founding of the German Institute for the Blind in Marburg (new window), the first hight school for the blind
  • 1919 The first edition of the mathematics and chemistry writings will appear after review by experts in Marburg
  • 1926 A chess writing is designed for blind people
  • 1929 Introduction of the International Braille system of writing music in Paris
  • 1943 Introduction of "Unit Stenography for the Blind" in Germany
  • 1951 The Perkins Brailler (new window) is built at the 'Perkins School for the Blind' (new window) and successfully marketed worldwide, invented by David Abraham and named after the namesake of the school Thomas H. Perkins (new window)
  • 1961 Introduction of a stenography of negotiating on the basis of the 8-dot system in Germany
  • 1968 Introduction of the automatic dot-printing by using computer and publishing the German magazine "Stern"
  • 1971 Reform (complete revision) of the German shorthand of 1904
  • 1972 - 1977 Development of an electro-mechanical Braille Line (Braille modul) in Stuttgart
  • 1980 First use of automated stamping machines
  • 1980 - 1986 The 8-dot Euro Braille system / Computer Braille is developed
  • 1998 Reform of the German Braille: adapting to new German spelling and and Consideration of the computer scripture by the new "Braille Commission of the German-speaking countries"
21st Century     (at 2001)
  • 2001 Controversial discussions about the introduction of 8-dot Braille as first writing for school children (rejected)
  • 2005 Amendments to the German Braille shorthands, current version of 2005
  • 2007 Fakoo-Alphabet as a 9-dot-writing for late-blinded by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2008 Quadoo-Alphabet (square writing) as an alternative of Moon by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2009 Braille year on the occasion of the 200th Birthday of Louis Braille on 4 January 2009
  • 2011 World Conference Braille21 (new window) in Leipzig
  • 2012 Siekoo-Alphabet (the confusion-free alphabet for 7-segment displays) by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2016 Rila Alphabet by Stefan Stefanov (Bulgaria)
  • 2017 Elia Alphabet by ELIA Idea Team (New York)

to the print version of timetable (new window)