en.fakoo.de Alphabets of disabled people

Chronological development of the writings for the blind, timetable
(with a focus on Germany)



timetable 1600 to 2000


Chronological development of the writings for the blind   Drucker



17th Century     (1601 - 1700)
18th Century     (1701 - 1800)
  • 1784 Valentin Haüy founded the first Institute for the Blind in the world in Paris
  • 1786 Production of the first book in relief writing (Haüy-Alphabet)
19th Century     (1801 - 1900)
  • 1804 Founding of the first German-language school for the blind in Vienna by Johann Wilhelm Klein
  • 1806 Founding of the first German school for the blind in Berlin-Steglitz by Johann August Zeune
  • 1807 Sting Writing by Johann Wilhelm Klein, Vienna
  • 1809 Louis Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris
  • 1815 Charles Barbier designed the first dot writing (Sonographie) as a military night writing
  • 1819 / 1820 Charles Barbier introduce his Sonography on the Paris Institute for the Blind
  • 1825 Introduction of the 6-Punktschrift by Louis Braille (development from 1821 to 1825)
  • 1828 Development of a music writing for the blind by Louis Braille
  • 1829 Production of the first book by using the Braille in Paris
  • 1830 Alston-Alphabet by John Alston, Glaskow
  • 1831 Gall-Alphabet by James Gall, Edinburgh
  • 1832 Howe-Alphabet by Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, Boston
  • 1838 Lucas-Alphabet by Thomas Mark Lucas, London, based on an alphabet of Frere
  • 1839 Dot-writing "Raphigrafy" by Louis Braille to communicate with the sighted
  • 1841 Writing device Raphigraph by François-Pierre Foucault for the Raphigraphy of Louis Braille
  • same year Printing of the first German Braille alphabet in Breslau (Wroclaw)
  • 1845 Moon-Alphabet by Dr. William Moon, Brighton
  • 1847 Printing of the first Braille book in England
  • 1849 The first printing machine for Braille goes into operation in Paris
  • 1850 Official launch of Braille to the blind schools in France
  • 1852 Louis Braille died on 6 January 1852 in Paris of tuberculosis
  • 1855 Alphons Koechlin introduces the braille in the blind school in Illzach (Alsace) he founded
  • 1859 Hebold-Alphabet by Ernst Eduard Hebold, Barby near Halle (Saxony-Anhalt)
  • 1871 "New York Point", the writing of William Bell Wait, is introduced in New York (development from 1860 to 1871)
  • 1872 The School for the Blind in Steglitz Berlin introduces the braille as a school subject
  • 1876 Founding of the Society for the Promotion of Education for the Blind in Dresden on the Second European Congress Blind Teachers
  • 1878 On a congress in Paris the Braille was declared officially as the international writing system for the blind
  • same year "American Braille" by Joel W. Smith as a reformed version of the Braille alphabet is introduced in some schools for the blind in the United States (distribution of combinations of dots after statistical frequency)
  • 1879 Official launch of the Braille in Germany on the 3rd Blind Teachers Congress in Berlin
  • 1881-1886 First publication of a reading book in German Braille
  • 1885 The first "German shorthand Braille system" will be accepted on the Blind Teachers Congress
  • same year William Perkins receives an U.S. Patent for a typewriter for the blind with 4 keys (not a Brailler)
  • 1888 Establishment of the first German Braille printing house in Berlin-Steglitz
  • 1895 England: Improvement of braille printing process by inventing the "Stereotyp Makers"
    Germany: Development of a machine for making stereotype plates in Braille
  • 1899 Development of the first practicable dot writing sheetfed typewriter by Oskar Picht (patent 1901)
  • 1900 Alphabet by Dr. Don Aniceto Mascaró, Lisbon, as a combination of braille with latin letters
20th Century     (1901 - 2000)
  • 1904 Resolution of the final version of a German shorthand system in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt)
  • 1907 The Blind Teachers Congress in Hamburg approved the first "math and chemistry writing for the blind"
  • 1910 Development of the first Braille Strip Chart Recorder by Oskar Picht in Berlin
  • 1916 Decision in the "War of the Dots" for the uniform English Braille also in America
  • same year Founding of the German Institute for the Blind in Marburg, the first hight school for the blind
  • 1919 The first edition of the mathematics and chemistry writings will appear after review by experts in Marburg
  • 1926 A chess writing is designed for blind people
  • 1929 Introduction of the International Braille system of writing music in Paris
  • 1943 Introduction of "Unit Stenography for the Blind" in Germany
  • 1951 The Perkins Brailler is built at the 'Perkins School for the Blind' and successfully marketed worldwide, invented by David Abraham and named after the namesake of the school Thomas H. Perkins
  • 1961 Introduction of a stenography of negotiating on the basis of the 8-dot system in Germany
  • 1968 Introduction of the automatic dot-printing by using computer and publishing the German magazine "Stern"
  • 1971 Reform (complete revision) of the German shorthand of 1904
  • 1972 - 1977 Development of an electro-mechanical Braille Line (Braille modul) in Stuttgart
  • 1980 First use of automated stamping machines
  • 1980 - 1986 The 8-dot Euro Braille system / Computer Braille is developed
  • 1998 Reform of the German Braille: adapting to new German spelling and and Consideration of the computer scripture by the new "Braille Commission of the German-speaking countries"
21st Century     (at 2001)
  • 2001 Controversial discussions about the introduction of 8-dot Braille as first writing for school children (rejected)
  • 2005 Amendments to the German Braille shorthands, current version of 2005
  • 2007 Fakoo-Alphabet as a 9-dot-writing for late-blinded by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2008 Quadoo-Alphabet (square writing) as an alternative of Moon by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2009 Braille year on the occasion of the 200th Birthday of Louis Braille on 4 January 2009
  • 2011 World Conference Braille21 in Leipzig
  • 2012 Siekoo-Alphabet (the confusion-free alphabet for 7-segment displays) by Alexander Fakoó
  • 2016 Rila Alphabet by Stefan Stefanov (Bulgaria)
  • 2017 Elia Alphabet by ELIA Idea Team (New York)

to the print version of timetable